Boot key combinations for Mac

There is a number of actions you are able to take by holding a key or a key combination during the start up of the Mac computer running macOS or OS X.

Press and hold the keys immediately after pressing the power button on your mac or after your Mac restarts until the required function takes place.

Hold during start-upDescription
ShiftStart up in Safe Mode.
OptionSelect startup disks
CStart up from an available CD, DVD, or USB thumb drive with macOS/OSX
DStart up from the built-in Apple Hardware Test or Apple Diagnostics utility
Option-Command-P-RReset NVRAM or PRAM.
Command-RStart up from the built-in macOS Recovery system.
Option-Command-R or Shift-Option-Command-RStart up from macOS Recovery over the Internet.
Command-SStart up in single-user mode.
TStart up in target disk mode.
XStart up from your macOS startup disk when it's not the default
Command-VStart up in verbose mode.
Eject key OR F12 key OR mouse/trackpad keyEject removable media, such as an optical disc.
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